**Swiss Micros DM41X and HP 41CX: Advanced String Programs**

**Introduction and Generating Random Integers**

This blog entry features three programs for the Swiss Micros DM41X and HP 41CX (or a HP 41C with an extended module):

ACODE: generate a code of random letters

ASAMP: generate a sample of numbers of digits 0 to 9, where no numbers repeat. ASAMP accepts up to 9 numbers.

CRYPT: allows the user to "add" or "subtract" a code to a word to encrypt it. CRYPT is a basic form of encryption.

Both ACODE and ASAMP use a random number generator. Unfortunately, the HP 41C does not have a random number generator and one must be programmed. I wanted to avoid reinventing the wheel. The following formula, obtained from the book An Atlas of Functions (see source), generates random numbers of value 0 ≤ r < 1:

r_n+1 = [ ( (4561 * int(243000 * r_n) + 51349 ) mod 243000 ] ÷ 243000

To convert this into a random integer from a to b:

randint = int( (b - a + 1) * r) + a

int is the integer function. The second formula is useful because we don't have to change display modes to execute the calculation.

Note:

XTOA takes an integer from the stack and appends the associated code to the alpha string.

ATOX takes the left most character, converts it to code, and deposits it on the X stack. The length of the alpha string is reduced by one.

Codes:

Alphabet: 65 is code for A, 90 is code for Z (all letters inclusive)

Numbers: 48 is code for 0, 57 is code for 57 (all letters inclusive)

# 35

$ 36

% 37

& 38

: 58

@ 64

[ 91

] 93

Σ 126

The system's DATE and TIME are used to generate an initial seed

**Swiss Micros DM41X Program: ACODE**

Instructions:

Enter the length, execute ACODE

Example (results will vary):

10 ACODE (may) return CDSJHPNWLD (10 letters)

11 ACODE -> NVJZJMVVBSV

01 LBL^T ACODE

02 CLA

03 STO 01

04 DATE

05 TIME

06 +

07 2

08 /

09 FRC

10 STO 02

11 LBL 00

12 RCL 02

13 XEQ 01

14 XEQ 02

15 XTOA

16 DSE 01

17 GTO 00

18 AVIEW

19 RTN

20 LBL 01

21 RCL 02

22 243 E3

23 *

24 LASTX

25 X<>Y

26 INT

27 4561

28 *

29 51349

30 +

31 X<>Y

32 MOD

33 LASTX

34 /

35 STO 02

36 RTN

37 LBL 02

38 26

39 *

40 INT

41 65

42 +

43 RTN

44 END

**Swiss Micros DM41X Program: ASAMP**

Instructions:

Enter the length, execute ASAMP

If the length is greater than 9, an error is generated.

Example (results will vary):

4 ASAMP can generate results such as 4381, 0361, 4920

7 ASAMP can generate results such as 6732145, 9852067, 1963542

Results are returned as an alpha string

01 LBL^T ASAMP

02 CLA

03 STO 01

04 9

05 X<Y?

06 GTO 03

07 DATE

08 TIME

09 *

10 FRC

11 STO 02

12 LBL 00

13 XEQ 01

14 STO 03

15 POSA

16 -1

17 X=Y?

18 GTO 02

19 GTO 00

20 LBL 02

21 RCL 03

22 XTOA

23 DSE 01

24 GTO 00

25 AVIEW

26 RTN

27 LBL 01

28 RCL 02

29 243 E3

30 *

31 LASTX

32 X<>Y

33 INT

34 4561

35 *

36 51349

37 +

38 X<>Y

39 MOD

40 LASTX

41 /

42 STO 02

43 10

44 *

45 INT

46 48

47 +

48 RTN

49 LBL 03

50 0

51 1/X

52 RTN

53 END

**Swiss Micros DM41X Program: CRYPT**

Syntax:

Store your word in the Alpha register

Give a key (integer), can be positive or negative

XEQ CRYPT

Example:

Starting alpha string: MATHS

10 CRYPT returns WKDRC

-10 CRYPT returns MATHS (where you started from)

This allows for two people to have short encoded messages and a secret key.

01 LBL^T CRYPT

02 STO 01

03 ALENG

04 STO 02

05 LBL 00

06 ATOX

07 65

08 -

09 RCL 01

10 +

11 26

12 MOD

13 65

14 +

15 XTOA

16 DSE 02

17 GTO 00

18 AVIEW

19 RTN

You can download all three files (in .raw format) here:

https://drive.google.com/file/d/1UD8CAILnfe4l2ID_UdoHfFGvaYiWni8J/view?usp=sharing

Thanks to Albert Chan (MoHPC) for feedback on the the programs.

**Source for the Random Number Formula:**

Keith Oldham, Jan Mayland, Jerome Spainer __An Atlas of Functions__ 2nd Edition Springer: New York, NY. 2009. ISBN 9780387488066

Eddie

All original content copyright, © 2011-2021. Edward Shore. Unauthorized use and/or unauthorized distribution for commercial purposes without express and written permission from the author is strictly prohibited. This blog entry may be distributed for noncommercial purposes, provided that full credit is given to the author.

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